Diabetes Mellitus:Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder that stops the body to use glucose entirely or moderately. It is characterized as higher glucose concentration in the blood and modification in carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism.
Diabetes Insipidus:Diabetes insipidus shares some symptoms of diabetes mellitus as large urine output, great thirst and sometimes large appetite. But there are not collections of metabolic disorder but some symptoms of specific injury are present.
Classification of Diabetes:
- Type 1 Diabetes:
- This may be caused by an virus OR due to autoimmunity
- Acidosis is fairly common
- The child is usually underweight.
- Acidosis is infrequent
- The person is usually over weight.
- This type of diabetes is mainly seen in some developing countries. Like India, Bangladesh, Sri- Lanka, Brazil, Nigeria etc.
- MRDM has so for not been reported from Pakistan.
- Increased thirst
- Increased hunger
- Dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Numbness in the hands or feet
- Cuts that heal slowly or not at all
- Infrequent thirst
- Normal urination in large amounts
- Fatigue (that is similar to the normal pregnancy fatigue so it is difficult to find the difference from normal pregnancy fatigue)
- Protein must be taken with every meal
- Fruits and vegetables must be taken in every meal
- Less than half of calories should be taken from carbohydrates
- 31% or less diet should be made up of fat
- Processed foods should avoid
- Protein should increase in diets to avoid overeating
- Fresh vegetables
- Fruits like apples, oranges, peas, berries, grapefruit, etc.
- Whole grain breads and cereals
- Non-starchy vegetables
- Starchy vegetables like carrots and peas
- A healthy pregnancy is possible with diabetes, there must require extra care, and if diabetics plan to get pregnant patients should visit their doctor first, a healthy diet and exercise are must. This formula helps to control blood sugar.
Diabetic Diet Prescription:Dietary measures are an essential part of treatments of diabetic patients. Who require treatment with insulin? If a fixed daily intake is achieved an exchange system is necessary.
Food Exchange Lists:The diets for diabetic patients are set in term of exchange lists. These are the groups of measured foods of the same chloric value and same protein, fat, & carbohydrate and can be replaced one for another in a meal plan. Benefits: It helps the patient as:
- To resist the food consumption according to the insulin instruction so both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can be prevented.
- Have variability in diet.
- Easy learning of principles of diet.
Carbohydrates:High carbohydrates and high fiber diet improves insulin binding. High carbohydrate diet uplift serum triglyceride level. So the amount of carbohydrates is maintained to 60% of total caloric intake by a diabetic patient. Carbohydrates are part of healthy diet. As eating carbohydrates makes the blood sugar level rise. But it doesn’t mean that the patient have to avoid the carbohydrates. The carbohydrates should be in form of polysaccharides such as bread, cereals, beans etc. Whole apple is better than apple juice because of its high fiber contents and high glycemic index. There are some foods that are necessary to avoid for a diabetic person:
- Trans fats
- White bread, pasta and rice
- Fruit-flavored yogurt
- Flavored coffee drinks
- Honey, agave nectar and maple syrup
- Dried fruits
- Sugar-sweetened beverages. Sugar beverages are worst drink for diabetics.
Proteins:Recommended protein for diabetic patients is 20% of kcals. Because it supplies that entire essential amino acids that are needed for the tissue repair. Protein doesn’t raise the blood sugar level. 1 g of protein per kg of body weight is adequate. In case of high amount of protein given the amount of carbohydrates and fat are proportionally reduced. Following high protein foods are good for type 2 diabetes:
- Fatty fish, (sockeye salmon)
- Canned tuna in water
- Skinless turkey
- Skinless chicken
- Beans & legumes
- Plain, nonfat yogurt
- Raw unsalted nuts like almonds & walnuts
Fats:Fat content should be 15-25% of total calories in a diet and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids. People having diabetes have not to worry about eating fats because fats don’t have an effect on blood glucose. But eating fatty foods can slow down digestion and make it problematic for insulin to work so in this way it causes a possible high blood glucose level.
Dietary fiber:Dietary fibers are good for type 1 and type 2 diabetes such diets lowers:
- Insulin requirements
- Increased peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity
- Decrease serum cholesterol
- Aid in weight loss
- Lower B.P.
- Wholegrain breakfast cereals, whole-wheat pasta, wholegrain bread and oats, barley and rye.
- Fruits such as berries, pears, melon and oranges.
- Vegetables such as broccoli, carrots and sweet corn.
- Peas, beans and pulses.
- Nuts and seeds
- Potatoes with skin
- The seeds are taken as such after soaking in water or in powder form as a drink in water or butter milk, 15 minutes before meal. Fenugreek seeds can be used in preparation of chapatti, rice, dhal and vegetables.
- It has been observed that the requirements of antidiabetic drugs decreases with the use of fenugreek
Foods that control blood sugar:
- Raw, cooked or roasted vegetables.
- Green. it contains regular salad, kale, spinach and chard
- Flavorful, low calorie drinks
- Melon or berries
- Whole- grains, higher-fiber foods
- A little fat
Exercises:There are great benefits of exercises as exercises can reduces the diabetes in such away:
- Reduces stress
- Help in weight loss
- Increases fat loss
- Lowers the level of bad cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) and increase good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein).
- Lowers B.P.
- Increase the effectiveness of insulin in body
- Lowers blood sugar level.
Author: Tehreem Hayat Food Science & Nutrition UOS (Sargodha)